Background & Genetics 1-3
Salient Features 1-6
Most cases are unilateral. However, some bilateral cases have been reported.
- Pectoralis muscle: Variable in presentation. Can range from hypoplasia to complete absence of the pectoral muscles (both major & minor).
- Other thoracic anomalies: Nipple/breast hypoplasia. Chest wall/sternal anomalies. Decreased axillary hair & subcutaneous fat.
- Upper limbs: Characteristic findings include syndactyly & brachydactyly with hypoplastic middle phalanges. However, in some cases, the upper limb could be phocomelic or absent.
- Other findings: Some cases associated with Moebius syndrome (congenital 6th and 7th nerve palsies)
References & Further reading
- Agarwal S, Arya A. Poland's syndrome. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2008;74:62-3
- Baban A, et al. Familial Poland anomaly revisited. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Jan;158A(1):140-9.
- Baban A, et al. Poland syndrome with bilateral features: case description with review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Jul;149A(7):1597-602.
- Seyfer AE, et al. Poland's anomaly. Natural history and long-term results of chest wall reconstruction in 33 patients. Ann Surg. 1988;208(6):776-82.
- López de Lara D, et al. Moebius-Poland syndrome and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167(3):353-4.
- David TJ. Familial Poland anomaly. J Med Genet. 1982;19(4):293-6.